Our moral sense makes involuntary, near instantaneous judgements of good and evil about other’s actions as well as our own. Integral to these involuntary judgements is the feeling that they are binding on all. Yet, when we look across cultures, moral codes are diverse, contradictory, and even (for outsiders) bizarre. Eating shrimp is a moral abomination? See Leviticus for this and many other entertainingly strange examples of enforced moral norms.

Observations like these have led some philosophers to argue that there is no universal morality and what is considered morally binding depends upon the society we live in4. Others have advocated versions of utilitarianism, Kantianism, virtue ethics, or theistic morality5, but no universal morality has become generally accepted.

Might this state of affairs be ready to be updated in light of results from science?

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