Two Types of Empathy
The ability to know how the other person feels and what they might be thinking. This kind of empathy is also known as “perspective-taking.”
Pros: Helpful when making negotiations or when trying to motivate people. Managers who are good at perspective-taking can move workers to give their best efforts.
Cons: Can be clinical and detached; people can use it to their advantage without really caring for the other person. Narcissists and sociopaths use it to actually hurt others.
2. Emotional (or Affective)
The ability to physically feel what others feel, as though their emotions were contagious. Uses brain cells called mirror neurons, which create an “echo” of another’s emotions inside our own minds.
Pros: Attunes us to another person’s inner emotional world, a plus for a wide range of professions, from sales to nursing—not to mention for any parent or lover.
Cons: An inability to manage one’s own distressing emotions can lead to paralysis and psychological exhaustion—a liability for first responders and medical professionals, who need the ability to “detach,” so they can work professionally and objectively.
A New View of Empathy
In a fractured world, can we hack our own sense of empathy and get others to become more empathic? Jamil Zaki, a psychology professor at Stanford, addresses that question, and more, in this fascinating TED talk.
Empathy: There’s an App for That
When her own research indicated that, in recent decades, young people were becoming less and less empathetic, Sara Konrath decided to do something about it.
So Konrath, assistant research professor at the Research Center for Group Dynamics at the University of Michigan, knew that empathy was teachable, and her team created an interactive app for developing empathy in children.
BUT . . . is empathy always good?
fundamentally, from a moral standpoint,
a bad thing.
It makes the world worse.
So says Paul Bloom, a professor of psychology and cognitive science at Yale. He explains here:
6 Books to Teach Kids About Empathy
More reading and viewing on the topic of empathy.
Paul Piff: Does Money Make You Mean? (TED)
Brené Brown on Empathy (RSA)
What It Can Be Like to Live with Autism (Upworthy)
Mark Ruffalo & Murray Teach Kids About Empathy (Sesame Street)
Cheru’s Story: A Virtual Reality Experience Walk Through (World Vision)